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Color as a Trademark in India – Significance, Challenges, and the Path to Registration

Color as a trademark in India

1. Introduction

In today’s hyper-competitive business environment, branding has emerged as a pivotal tool for companies to distinguish themselves from their competitors. It’s not just about having a catchy name or a memorable logo anymore; it’s about creating a holistic identity that resonates with consumers, evokes trust, and fosters loyalty. This identity, built over time through consistent messaging, quality products, and impactful marketing, becomes a company’s most valuable asset. It’s the reason consumers are willing to pay a premium for Apple products or why they prefer to sip on a Starbucks coffee.

As businesses continue to innovate in their branding strategies, they are exploring every possible avenue to create a unique identity. This brings us to a fascinating and relatively new dimension of branding: the use of color as a trademark. While it might seem unconventional, color has always played a crucial role in our perceptions and emotions. Think about the calmness associated with a serene blue or the urgency invoked by a fiery red. Brands have recognized this power of color and are now vying to claim specific shades as their own, making them synonymous with their products or services.

The concept of color as a trademark is not just a fleeting trend; it’s a testament to the evolving nature of branding in the 21st century. As we delve deeper into this topic, we’ll uncover the significance of color trademarks, the legal frameworks governing them, and the challenges businesses face in staking a claim to a particular hue.

2. The Power of Color in Branding

Colors have an innate ability to evoke emotions, memories, and even specific sensations. Their influence extends beyond mere aesthetics, deeply impacting our psyche and shaping our perceptions. This profound effect of colors on human behavior has been the subject of numerous studies, and the findings are particularly relevant in the realm of branding.

Research has consistently shown that colors can significantly influence consumers’ purchasing decisions. For instance, a study revealed that up to 90% of snap judgments made about products can be based on color alone. This is not surprising when we consider how certain colors are universally associated with specific emotions or attributes. Blue, often linked with trust and reliability, is a favorite among tech companies and financial institutions. Red, on the other hand, exudes energy, passion, and urgency, making it a popular choice for brands that want to grab attention.

Let’s delve into some iconic real-world examples to understand the power of color in branding:

Coca-Cola’s Red: Few brands are as instantly recognizable as Coca-Cola, and a significant part of its brand identity is its vibrant red color. This shade not only captures the brand’s dynamic and refreshing essence but also ensures that it stands out on store shelves. Over the decades, Coca-Cola’s red has become synonymous with the beverage, making it nearly impossible to see that shade and not think of the iconic drink.

Facebook’s Blue: When you think of social media, the calming blue hue of Facebook likely comes to mind. Mark Zuckerberg’s choice of blue wasn’t just a random decision; he’s red-green colorblind, making blue the most vibrant color he sees. But beyond that personal reason, blue is often associated with trust, depth, and stability—qualities that a social networking site would want to convey.

Tiffany & Co’s Shade of Blue: The luxury jewelry brand Tiffany & Co. has so effectively trademarked its distinctive robin’s egg blue that it’s often simply referred to as “Tiffany Blue.” This color not only adorns its packaging but has also become emblematic of elegance, sophistication, and timeless luxury. For many, the sight of a Tiffany Blue box is enough to evoke feelings of anticipation and excitement.

These examples underscore the strategic importance of color in branding. It’s not just about picking a shade that looks good; it’s about choosing a color that encapsulates the brand’s essence, resonates with its target audience, and distinguishes it from competitors. As the business landscape becomes increasingly saturated, the power of color as a differentiating factor is only set to grow.

3. Legal Framework for Color Trademarks in India and US

Branding, while a creative endeavor, is deeply intertwined with legal frameworks that ensure protection and exclusivity. When it comes to color trademarks, the legal landscape is intricate, shaped by evolving interpretations and landmark cases. Let’s explore the legal frameworks governing color trademarks in both India and the US.

The Trade Marks Act, 1999 (India): The Trade Marks Act of 1999 is the cornerstone of trademark law in India. While the Act primarily focuses on traditional trademarks like logos, names, and symbols, its broad definition of a trademark opens the door for unconventional marks, including colors. Specifically, the Act defines a trademark as any mark capable of being graphically represented and distinguishing the goods or services of one entity from another. This definition, while not explicitly mentioning color, has been interpreted to encompass color marks. However, the challenge lies in registration. For a color to be registered as a trademark in India, it must be distinctive and not serve a functional or descriptive purpose. Over the years, Indian courts have deliberated on various cases related to color trademarks, setting precedents and clarifying the stance on this unconventional form of trademark.

The Lanham Act (US): The United States’ trademark law is governed by the Lanham Act. Unlike the Indian Trade Marks Act, the Lanham Act has seen amendments that explicitly address the trademarking of colors. The Act defines trademarks as “any word, name, symbol, device, or any combination thereof” used to distinguish and identify goods or services. While colors were not originally included in this definition, a pivotal change came in 1995. Since then, colors can be trademarked as part of a service or product, provided they meet specific conditions. These conditions include the color serving as a source of brand identification, not having a functional purpose, showing proof of “secondary meaning,” and not disadvantaging competitors. The US legal framework, through various court rulings, has further refined and clarified the criteria for color trademark registration, making it a more established practice compared to India.

In conclusion, while both India and the US recognize the potential of color as a trademark, their legal frameworks differ in their approach and clarity. As brands continue to explore the power of color in their identity, understanding these legal nuances becomes paramount to ensure protection and avoid potential disputes.

4. Criteria for Color Trademark Registration

The idea of trademarking a color, at first glance, might seem abstract. After all, how can one lay claim to something as ubiquitous as a color? Yet, as brands increasingly recognize the power of color in their identity, the legal realm has set specific criteria to ensure that the process of color trademark registration is rigorous, fair, and justifiable. Let’s delve deeper into these criteria:

Distinctiveness: At the heart of any trademark, be it a logo, name, or color, lies the principle of distinctiveness. For a color to be eligible for trademark registration, it must stand out and be uniquely associated with a particular brand or product. This means that the color should not merely be decorative or generic but should play a pivotal role in brand recognition. For instance, while many brands might use a shade of blue in their packaging or branding, the specific shade of “Tiffany Blue” is distinctive and immediately brings to mind the luxury jewelry brand Tiffany & Co. Achieving this level of distinctiveness requires consistent use of the color in branding and marketing efforts over time, ensuring that consumers begin to associate the color exclusively with a particular brand.

Non-functionality: The color chosen for trademark registration should not serve a functional or utilitarian purpose. This criterion ensures that companies cannot monopolize colors that have a practical application in an industry. For example, yellow or orange, often used for safety equipment and signs, serve a functional purpose by ensuring visibility. Trademarking such colors would give an unfair advantage to a company and potentially hinder safety standards. The color should be chosen for its branding potential rather than its functional utility.

Secondary Meaning: One of the most challenging criteria to meet is establishing a “secondary meaning” for the color. This means that over time, in the minds of the consumers, the color has come to signify a specific product or service. It’s not just about the color itself but the association that consumers make when they see it. For instance, while brown might be a common color, the specific “Pullman Brown” immediately makes people think of UPS, the delivery company. Establishing secondary meaning often requires substantial evidence, such as market surveys, showing that a significant portion of the consumer base associates the color with the brand in question.

No Disadvantage to Competitors: The trademarking process also ensures fairness in the competitive landscape. A color cannot be trademarked if doing so would put other competitors at a significant disadvantage, especially if it affects cost or quality. For instance, if a company tried to trademark a color that, due to its properties, is cheaper to produce, it would give them an unfair cost advantage. The process ensures that trademarking a color doesn’t stifle competition or innovation in the industry.

In summary, while the idea of color trademarking is innovative and offers brands a unique avenue for differentiation, the criteria for registration are stringent. They ensure that the process is not just about laying claim to a color but about establishing a deep, recognizable, and fair association between the color and the brand.

5. Challenges in Registering Color Trademarks

The journey to trademarking a color is fraught with challenges. While the idea of associating a specific hue with a brand is enticing, the legal and practical hurdles can be daunting. The very nature of color, ubiquitous and universally accessible, makes the process of claiming it uniquely complex.

Proving Distinctiveness and Secondary Meaning: The twin challenges of establishing distinctiveness and secondary meaning are perhaps the most formidable. Distinctiveness requires that the color stands out and is not merely a decorative or generic choice. This can be particularly challenging given the vast spectrum of colors and their variations. Even if a brand consistently uses a color, proving that it is distinctive and not just a common shade used in the industry can be tough.

Secondary meaning adds another layer of complexity. It’s not enough for a brand to claim that they’ve used a color consistently; they must demonstrate that in the minds of consumers, this color immediately brings their brand to mind. This often necessitates extensive market research, surveys, and sometimes years of consistent branding efforts. The challenge is twofold: not only must the brand establish this association, but they must also provide compelling evidence to back their claim.

Notable Cases Highlighting the Challenges:

General Mills and the Yellow of Cheerios: One might think that the bright yellow box of Cheerios is distinctive enough to warrant a trademark. However, when General Mills attempted to trademark this specific shade of yellow, they faced a setback. The court ruled that the yellow wasn’t a distinctive element of the Cheerios brand. The color was deemed too generic, especially since other cereal companies also used similar shades of yellow. The case underscores the challenge of proving distinctiveness, even when a color seems intrinsically linked to a brand.

Colgate vs. Anchor: In a battle over the color red on toothpaste packaging, Colgate’s claim that the color was part of their brand’s trade dress was contested by Anchor. The Bombay High Court, in this case, acknowledged that color could be a part of trade dress. However, the mere use of the color red on toothpaste packaging couldn’t be claimed as a trademark by Colgate, emphasizing the need for the color to be uniquely associated with a brand.

Cadbury’s Purple Shade Battle with Nestle: Perhaps one of the most famous color trademark battles, Cadbury’s attempt to trademark a specific shade of purple for its chocolate wrappers was met with fierce opposition from Nestle. While Cadbury argued that the color had acquired a secondary meaning and was associated with their brand, Nestle contended that colors couldn’t be monopolized. After a prolonged legal battle, Cadbury’s claim to the purple shade was recognized, but the case highlighted the intricacies and challenges of color trademarking.

In conclusion, while color trademarking offers a unique avenue for brands to differentiate themselves, the path is riddled with challenges. The cases mentioned above are testament to the rigorous scrutiny and high standards that brands must meet to lay claim to a specific hue. As the realm of branding evolves, these challenges underscore the need for brands to be strategic, persistent, and backed by compelling evidence when venturing into the world of color trademarks.

6. The Color Trademark Application Process in USA

Navigating the world of trademarks is a meticulous process, demanding precision, patience, and a deep understanding of the legal landscape. When it comes to color trademarks, the intricacies multiply, given the unique challenges associated with claiming a specific hue. Central to this journey is the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the governing body overseeing trademark registrations in the United States.

The Role of the USPTO: The USPTO is the federal agency responsible for granting patents and registering trademarks. When a company or individual seeks to trademark a color, their application is submitted to the USPTO for review. The process involves a thorough examination of the application to ensure it meets all legal requirements. This includes checking for potential conflicts with existing trademarks, ensuring the color meets the criteria of distinctiveness and secondary meaning, and verifying that all necessary documentation and evidence are provided.

Supplemental Register vs. Principal Register: The USPTO maintains two primary registers for trademarks: the Supplemental Register and the Principal Register.

Supplemental Register: This is often the starting point for trademarks that don’t yet meet all the criteria for full registration, especially in terms of distinctiveness. Being on the Supplemental Register provides some benefits, such as the ability to use the ® symbol. However, it doesn’t offer the same level of protection as the Principal Register. Trademarks on this register have a chance to prove their distinctiveness over time.

Principal Register: This is the primary register, offering the highest level of protection. Trademarks on the Principal Register have been thoroughly vetted and meet all the criteria for distinctiveness and secondary meaning. They enjoy more robust legal protections and have a stronger standing in legal disputes.

For color trademarks, the journey often begins on the Supplemental Register, especially if the brand is still in the process of establishing the secondary meaning of the color. Over time, as the association between the color and the brand strengthens, companies can reapply for registration on the Principal Register.

Pantone Matching System (PMS): Given the vast spectrum of colors and their subtle variations, defining a specific shade for trademark purposes can be challenging. This is where the Pantone Matching System (PMS) comes into play. PMS is a standardized color reproduction system that assigns unique codes to specific shades. When applying for a color trademark, brands often reference the PMS code of the desired color, ensuring there’s no ambiguity about the exact shade they’re claiming. This precision is crucial, given that even slight variations in hue can make a significant difference in trademark disputes.

In conclusion, the trademark application process, especially for colors, is a journey that demands precision, patience, and a strategic approach. With the guidance of the USPTO and tools like the Pantone Matching System, brands can navigate this landscape, ensuring their unique hues are protected and recognized.

7. The Role of Trademark Attorneys in the Process

Trademark registration in India, especially in the realm of colors, is not just about choosing a hue and filing an application. It’s a complex legal process that requires expertise, foresight, and a deep understanding of the intricacies of trademark law. This is where trademark attorneys come into play, acting as invaluable allies for brands venturing into the world of color trademarks.

Why Hiring a Trademark Attorney is Crucial:

Expertise in Trademark Law: Trademark law, with its nuances, evolving interpretations, and landmark cases, can be daunting for those unfamiliar with it. Trademark attorneys bring to the table years of training and experience, ensuring that brands navigate this landscape with confidence.

Avoiding Costly Mistakes: A misstep in the trademark registration process, such as overlooking a potential conflict or not providing sufficient evidence of secondary meaning, can be costly. Not only can it lead to the rejection of the application, but it can also result in legal disputes. An attorney can help brands avoid these pitfalls.

Strategic Guidance: Beyond the legalities, trademarking is also a strategic endeavor. An attorney can provide insights on how to strengthen a brand’s claim to a color, advise on potential challenges, and offer guidance on achieving secondary meaning more effectively.

Services Provided by Company360 for achieving Color Trademark registration:

Checking Color Availability: Before diving into the trademark filing process, it’s crucial to check if the desired color is already trademarked or if there are similar claims that might conflict. Attorneys use specialized databases and their network to conduct comprehensive searches, ensuring that the chosen color is available for initiating trademark process.

Identifying Potential Conflicts: Even if a color is available, there might be potential conflicts on the horizon. For instance, if a competitor is using a similar shade, even if it’s not trademarked, it might lead to disputes in the future. Attorneys can identify these potential challenges and advise brands on how to navigate them.

Strategizing for Quicker Secondary Meaning Achievement: Achieving secondary meaning is often the most challenging part of color trademarking. Attorneys can provide strategies, such as targeted marketing campaigns or consumer surveys, to help brands establish this association more quickly.

Filing and Monitoring the Application: Once the application is ready, attorneys ensure it’s filed correctly with the relevant authorities, such Trademark registry in India. They also monitor the application’s progress, addressing any queries or concerns raised by the trademark office.

In essence, while the allure of color trademarking is undeniable, the journey is intricate. Trademark attorneys act as guides, ensuring that brands not only navigate the legal hurdles but also strategize effectively to make their mark in the world of color branding.


The world of branding is in a state of constant evolution. As businesses vie for consumer attention in an increasingly saturated market, they are exploring every avenue to carve out a unique identity. In this quest, the realm of color trademarks has emerged as a frontier both promising and challenging. No longer confined to logos, slogans, or jingles, brands are recognizing the immense power of color in shaping consumer perceptions and driving brand loyalty.

However, with this promise comes a set of challenges. The legal landscape, while acknowledging the potential of color trademarks, demands rigorous criteria to be met. It’s a delicate balance between the branding aspirations of businesses and the legal frameworks designed to ensure fairness, prevent monopolies, and protect consumer interests. This balance ensures that while brands can use colors to differentiate themselves, they cannot do so at the expense of competition or consumer clarity.

For businesses contemplating the journey of color trademarking, the path is clear yet intricate. It’s not just about choosing a hue that aligns with the brand’s essence; it’s about understanding the legal nuances, strategizing effectively, and being prepared for potential challenges. The role of trademark attorneys becomes indispensable, guiding brands through the maze of legalities and strategies.

In conclusion, as the branding landscape continues to evolve, color trademarks stand out as a testament to the innovative spirit of businesses. They underscore the limitless possibilities of branding, pushing the boundaries of how brands communicate their identity. For businesses ready to embark on this journey, the message is clear: understand the intricacies, be strategic, and embrace the power of color with both creativity and responsibility.

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